Grand Central Air Terminal

Grand Central Air Terminal: Grand Central Air Terminal main entrance
Grand Central Air Terminal: HVAC utility enclosure
Grand Central Air Terminal: East facade along Air Way street in Glendale
Grand Central Air Terminal: Luminous in sun and shade
Grand Central Air Terminal: Grand Central Air Terminal during restoration
Grand Central Air Terminal: Typical weathered stucco and concrete surfaces prior to refinishing
Grand Central Air Terminal: Retaining historic textures
Grand Central Air Terminal: Damaged mass masonry and stucco
Grand Central Air Terminal: Poorly matched historical patch
Grand Central Air Terminal: Control tower stucco repairs
Grand Central Air Terminal: Inappropriate material application
Grand Central Air Terminal: Large area stucco plaster cracks
Grand Central Air Terminal
Pictured above: After restoration, the splendor of this historic structure  is beautifully rendered in Keim silicate mineral coatings which reinforce the architecture's natural warmth and complement its style.

About This Project

KEIM was selected as the most compatible coating to both protect the structures from moisture and provide a decorative finish respectful of the historic architecture, especially for the period of significance. The result was a natural mineral finish that not only draws the eye across the beautiful architecture, the beauty is expected to last beyond the next three decades in this dry climate.

The restoration included extensive structural stabilization and seismic upgrades and restoration of the exterior and rehabilitation of significant interior spaces so that the building could be adaptively reused. The project was completed in late 2015.

Grand Central Air Terminal is one of Glendale’s most storied structures. It opened in 1929 as the primary public building for Grand Central Air Terminal, which had been established in 1922 as the Glendale Municipal Airport and served as the first commercial airport in the Los Angeles area. Designed by Henry L. Gogerty in a seamless blend of the Spanish Colonial Revival and Art Deco styles, the building helped establish the overall program of airline terminals today, providing dedicated areas for ticketing, waiting, and dining.
Challenges The historic concrete and stucco fabric on the exterior mass masonry walls exhibited cracks from hairline and larger with many historic patches scattered across the coarse-grained façade.  The sensitive approach to the renovation was to restore the terminal to its historic appearance. The paint scheme was based upon analysis of the historic colors.
Solutions After boring and cutting into the walls to provide seismic upgrades were completed, the surfaces were patched. Horizontal surfaces were pretreated with KEIM Silan-100, 100 percent active ingredient silane water repellent, as these surface planes are most exposed for water intrusion. Weathered stucco and precast concrete were pretreated with KEIM Fixativ silicate dilution providing an evenly absorbent coating surface. And the patchwork of mortar repairs and varying weathered surface textures were softened just enough to retain the historic beauty of this old structure with a textured base coat of KEIM Concretal-W Grob silicate coating topped with a coat of KEIM Concretal-W silicate mineral coating.
Architect

Frederick Fisher and Partners 12248 Santa Monica Blvd, Los Angeles; Engineer Simpson Gumpertz and Heger 4695 MacArthur Court, Newport Beach; Historic Preservation Consultant Historic Resources Group 12 South Fair Oaks Ave, Pasadena

Contractor PCL Construction Services, Inc.
500 N Brand Blvd Ste 1500
Glendale, California
pcl.com
Applicator EverGreene Architectural Arts, Inc.
450 W 31st St 7th Floor
New York, New York
evergreene.com
Type of Project Historic Restoration
Customer Grand Central Air Terminal
Location Glendale, California (United States)
Regional Info Glendale has a Mediterranean climate with high temperatures from 85 °F to the low 100s, and low temperatures to 30 °F. The warmest month is August and the coolest month is January. Rainfall is highest in February and lowest in July with average precipitation of 21 inches. Frost is common from late November to early March. Heavy rains and thunderstorms are also common during the winter.

News/Announcements

The background stories of Grand Central Air Terminal: click here

Products Used in This Project

Universalputz Fine Historic Mix Plaster/Stucco
Universalputz Fine Historic Mix Plaster/Stucco
Universalputz Fine is a thin layer, interior and exterior plaster and stucco based on a unique formula of hydraulic lime, white Portland Cement and mineral fibers/fillers.  Meets requirements of CSIII (P II acc. to DIN 18550). Serves as the base for KEIM Mineral Silicate paints and finishes, for a complete plaster/stucco system for historic restoration or new construction.  
 
Universalputz Standard Historic Mix Plaster/Stucco
Universalputz Standard Historic Mix Plaster/Stucco
Lime cement render-KEIM Universalputz is a renovation and thin layer exterior wall render, based on lime cement and fiber reinforcement, (Standard render to DIN EN 998-1). KEIM Universalputz corresponds to mortar category CS III, P II acc. to DIN V 18550. Combined with KEIM silicate coatings, KEIM Universalputz is a coordinated render/coating system.
 
Concretal-W Coarse Base (Concretal-Grob)
Concretal-W Coarse Base (Concretal-Grob)
Concretal-W Coarse Base used as a first coat to fill small cracks and equalize textures
 
Fixativ
Fixativ
Silicate binding agent for use with Keim systems. Reacts chemically with the surface.
 
I & F-Grund
I & F-Grund
Keim I&F Grund is a colourless primer with good water vapour permeability used to obliterate staining.
 
Silan 100 Penetrating Water Repellent
Silan 100 Penetrating Water Repellent
Solvent-free, silane-based water repellent to ZTV-ING OS-A and to DIN EN 1504-2/1.1, 2.1, 8.1.
 
CONCRETAL-W HIGH PERFORMANCE FINISH
CONCRETAL-W HIGH PERFORMANCE FINISH
Sol-Silicate Finish for All Concrete
 
Concretal Dilution/Thinner (Concretal Fixativ)
Concretal Dilution/Thinner (Concretal Fixativ)
KEIM Concretal-Dilution is a sol-silicate thinner/diluent and primer for the Concretal coating and stain system.
 
Lime Remover (Atzflussigkeit)
Lime Remover (Atzflussigkeit)
KEIM Ätzflüssigkeit (lime remover) is a pre-treatment and cleaning agent based on silicic acid, which, when applied, reacts to form harmless compounds.